Much discussion happens on #perl6, our IRC channel. This is the fastest way to get help.
Another way to stay tuned is reading posts from blogs that focus on Perl 6.
You can learn some basics about Perl 6 with these introductory screencasts by Gabor Szabo. Gabor also frequents our IRC channel.
Perl 6 is well represented on Rosetta Code, where you can see Perl 6 (and many other languages) applied to numerous programming tasks.
Many questions and answers marked with Perl6 tag.
For more persistent discussions (and for the poor folks who can't use IRC) we have several mailing lists.
As of 2014, the lists have very low traffic (because most activity is on #perl6), but every question sent to it usually gets answered swiftly by at least one person.
You can subscribe to each list by sending an email to email@example.com.
Whether you're an open source veteran or someone that doesn't know what "open source" means, there are many ways that you can get involved and contribute to the Perl 6 project.
Some writing topics could be programs you've written, tricks you've learned, cool things about the Perl 6, etc. Because of your fresh perspective as a learner, writing educational/training material would be a great idea as well.
Through your experience of learning and using Perl 6, you will have utitilized the docs. You're in a good position to help us make these docs more robust. If you notice something missing, or something that could be better clarified, open an issue on the Github Repo.
Help increase test coverage of the official Perl6 test suite called roast. This is the high bar that all Perl 6 implementations must meet. There's a lot of ground to cover, so get up to speed with the Test module, if you don't already know it, and join us!
Once you've learned the language, you can write modules and share them in the ecosystem. We use zef for packaging. See this guide if you have questions about how to organize modules. If you don't know what to write, check out the most wanted modules list.
Rakudo is the most popular Perl 6 compiler right now. Hacking on Rakudo innards is a lot easier than you would think, since most of it is written in Perl 6. However, since it isn't completely self-hosting, some parts are written in NQP, or Not Quite Perl.
So you can get started right away by writing Perl 6, and if/when you need to access some very low-level functionality you can learn NQP. You can get up to speed fairly fast with this NQP learning course. So feel free to jump right in!